Solar Hydrogen Research P/L(1996)
Funded by S.V.Zorbas since 1996-ABN 27075413759 (non-profit-1996) -
"A parallel of significance has been reached between, the importance of Hydrogen in its nuclear sense as in our stars, with hydrogen in its humble chemical sense here on Earth."-1995
A r t i f i c i a l p h o t o s y n t h e s i s
Solar Hydrogen Research Pty Ltd had artificial photosynthesis as one of its research directions(1996),in the production of hydrogen as a solar fuel via solar energy. This direction is not overly unique, and I am sure a number of organisations, scientists and engineers would have done similar in the past decades throughout the world. A number strands of artificial photosynthesis have been developed and progress in the world today, under the banner of "Solar Fuels". "The Parallel of Significance" has been attached since 1996 as a platform statement in support of our efforts, and was latter attached to The National Hydrogen Institute of Australia in year 2004. Australian researchers from the Australian National University have made significant ground in determining that the natural photo-chemistry in plants is more complex and less charged than first thought (Nov.-2012).The University of Wollongong south of Sydney, have been making significant breakthroughs in electromaterials science, allowing hydrogen production from seawater. Hypersolar is applying nano-science/engineering in developing their renewable hydrogen generation system wherever there is sun and water together. Join Center for Artificial Photosynthesis (JCAF) was created by the US department of Energy in year 2010. MIT develop solar-to-fuel roadmap for crystalline silicone.
Community / home micro-grid power generation:
Before the more technical aspects as above are implemented in the near future, we have now systems that are simple and relevant today. Solar hydrogen can as well be achieved in a distributed manner at the hands of community and home generation units. It's great to have research and its directions however Solar Hydrogen Research Pty Ltd looks at all scenarios and has written reports on numerous areas outside its specific ideas on research. Look at solar PV panels by example and notice that since year 2008 the cost has dropped by 80%, and is forecast to be $.36/kW by year 2017. Further breakthroughs mean that before year 2020, the average house may be putting up 3-5 kW and the more adventurous may go 5kW to 10kW. Now with hydrogen production from electrolysis improving to say 45kW/kg of hydrogen for a system and with so much solar PV going up on rooves, 40-50 kWhrs over just several days becomes a reality. Devices needing hydrogen before year 2020 like fuel cell cars, lawn mowers, bikes, motor bikes, small fuel cells, or even exchanging hydrogen canisters with neighbors in a barter exchange system. In Melbourne Victoria Australia, 230 watt polycrystalline solar panels are selling over the internet for A$165, and a 500 watt grid tie "plug nPlay" inverter is selling for A$150. All central renewable energy generators and those yet conceived just died ! Simply will not need to demand such grid electricity (renewable or other wise) well before year 2020.Before year 2020 a serious solar hydrogen production capacity should become available.
Big business could come to the rescue looking ahead, as in say the US where a carbon tax may be introduced or other costs, big business may purchase renewable electricity by long term contracts. This would allow large companies to know their electricity costs over say twenty(20) years, and facilitate the building of large solar power plants.
The efficiency of solar electric panels is set to increase significantly over the next decade. New technologies as well are contributing to a potential 50%-60% conversion rate. Such high rates and such low prices of future solar panels facilitate much surplus electricity over daily needs, and this surplus can be stored as hydrogen and or in batteries. Hydrogen storage would be significant enough given the new capacity solar panels, to supply the family car with hydrogen for significant travel.
Community scale and generation:
"Power to gas" by putting hydrogen into the natural gas pipeline as ITM power plans to do with its soon to be built project in Britain, was put forward by S.H.R. P/L in a report nearly ten(10) years ago. The principle was that a % of hydrogen should be able to be put into the natural gas pipelines noting that past "town gas" pipelines transported 55%-60% hydrogen in its mix as supplied one hundred(100) or so years ago. Hydrogen produced this way can as well be mixed with CO2(carbon dioxide) to produce methane and where the electricity is offset by renewable electrcity; renewable methane can be input. Whilst ITM plan 1MW class electrolyser using 24/7 cheap contracted electricity, producing cheap hydrogen for input into the natural gas pipeline, the electricity used can be renewably generated at another location to offset the grid supply used. The UK ought be commended in the way they have expanded their h2/FC programs in conjunction with the EU.
Large scale solar fuel/s production projects could take place in Western Australia, with port facilities their and in the Northern Territory. Mass solar hydrogen processes producing large quantities of hydrogen can be achieved for shipping to developing countries like India and China, and the rest of the world where applicable. The mass hydrogen production idea from W.A. was first put forward by SHR P/L over a decade ago.
Real sustainable energy within home micro-grids to community micro-grids become extremely important. With solar panels becoming so cheap, & several new silicon breakthroughs yet to be delivered, with several non-silicon technologies already at 15% and >30% efficiency already, solar harvesting space becomes imperative. Home/ community rooftops to improvised backyard collection, to community harvesting areas will all be seen and much more. We will have the technology before year 2020 to afford 5kW-10kW systems, and our utility companies cannot pay all of us in the medium term, as the surplus becomes enormous. Storage of solar energy becomes technologically affordable as well before year 2020, so hydrogen storage battery systems at a variety of pressures will become available along with a variety of capacities. Solar hydrogen (direct conversion) systems will as well be available before year 2020, with ultimate decision making on the system selected subject to cost of say PEM fuel cells by then. If the hydrogen fuel cell becomes very cheap before say year 2020, then hydrogen production and storage is essential; Our cars to home electricity at night generation will need hydrogen. Poorer nations can receive mass supply of solar hydrogen by tanker over the decades until they themselves can sustain individual systems. Australia can easily become a supplier of mass solar hydrogen production from Western Australia and The Northern Territory export natural gas/shipping terminal facilities.
NSW State Department of Energy Utilities & Sustainability-Energy & Water Green Globe Awards - 2004/2005/2006
National Hydrogen Institute of Australia
SHR P/L has written over 20 reports and proposals since year 2001,on hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, introducing Australia to the future and its position.
Stephen Zorbas-Director Nuclear Energy in Australia
Australia's first dedicated -( 1996-2012 )Solar Hydrogen Research Pty Ltd (non-profit 1996) certification below
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_fuel http://www.chem4kids.com/files/elements/001_speak.html
http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/1/hydrogen http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/h.htm http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele001.html http://www.livescience.com/28466-hydrogen.html
National Hydrogen Institute of Australia